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[其他教育] 授人以鱼不如授人以渔,从小养成的思维模式决定人生成就

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固井工人 发表于 2019-9-5 11:19:23 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
百事牛评:积极或消极决定天堂和地狱

「成长型思维模式」专注过程,而不是结果。

I heard about a highschool in Chicago where students had to pass a certain number of courses tograduate, and if they didn't pass a course, they got the grade "NotYet." And I thought that was fantastic, because if you get a failinggrade, you think, I'm nothing, I'm nowhere. But if you get the grade "NotYet" you understand that you're>我听说,在芝加哥有一所高中,那儿的学生毕业前要通过一系列课程,如果某一门课没有通过,成绩就是「暂未通过」。我想,这真是个绝妙的做法,因为,如果你某门课的成绩不及格,你会想,我什么都不是,我什么都没有学到。但如果你的成绩是「暂未通过」,你会明白,学习的步伐并没有停下,你还需逐步向前,争取未来。

"Not Yet"also gave me insight into a critical event early in my career, a real turningpoint. I wanted to see how children coped with challenge and difficulty, so Igave 10-year-olds problems that were slightly too hard for them. Some of them reactedin a shockingly positive way. They said things like, "I love achallenge," or, "You know, I was hoping this would beinformative."

「暂未通过」也让我联想起一件尤为重要的、发生在我职业生涯初期的事情,这件事对我而言是一个转折点。当时,我想探究孩子是如何应对挑战和困难的,因此,我让一些10岁大的孩子尝试解决一些对于他们而言稍稍偏难的问题。一些孩子积极应对的方式让我感到震惊。他们会这样说,「我喜欢挑战,」或说,「你知道的,我希望能有所获。」

They understood that their abilities could be developed.They had what I call a growth mindset. But other students felt it was tragic,catastrophic. From their more fixed mindset perspective, their intelligence hadbeen up for judgment and they failed. Instead of luxuriating in the power ofyet, they were gripped in the tyranny of now.

这些孩子明白,他们的能力是可以提升的。他们有我所说的成长型思维模式。但另一些孩子觉得面对这些难题是不幸,宛如面对一场灾难。从他们的固定型思维角度来看,他们的才智受到了评判,而他们失败了。他们不懂得享受学习的过程,而只盯住眼前的成与败。

So what do they donext? I'll tell you what they do next. In>这些孩子们后面表现如何?让我告诉你他们的表现。在一项研究中,他们告诉我们,如果他们某次考试未通过,他们很可能会在下次考试中作弊,而不是更加努力地学习。在另一项研究中,他们挂了一门后,他们会找到那些考得还不如他们高的孩子,以寻求自我安慰。后续的研究陆续表明,他们会逃避困难。

Scientists measured the electrical activity fromthe brain as students confronted an error. On the left, you see the fixedmindset students. There's hardly any activity. They run from the error. Theydon't engage with it. But>科学家们监测了学生们面对错误时的脑电活动图像。在左侧,是固定型思维模式的学生,几乎没有什么活动。他们在错误面前选择了逃避。他们没有积极地投入。但请看右侧,这是成长型思维模式的学生,这些学生相信能力会通过锻炼得以提升。他们积极地应对错误。他们的大脑在高速运转,他们积极地投入,他们剖析错误,从中学习,最终订正。

How are we raising ourchildren? Are we raising them for now instead of yet? Are we raising kids whoare obsessed with getting A's? Are we raising kids who don't know how to dreambig dreams? Their biggest goal is getting the next A or the next test score?

如今我们是如何教育孩子的呢?是教育他们专注眼前,而不是注重过程吗?我们培育了一些迷恋刷A的孩子们吗?我们培育了没有远大理想的孩子们吗?他们最远大的目标就是再拿一个A,心里所想的就是下一次考试吗?

And are they carrying this need for constant validation with them into theirfuture lives? Maybe, because employers are coming to me and saying, we havealready raised a generation of young workers who can't get through the daywithout an award.

他们在今后的生活中,都以分数的高低来评判自己吗?或许是的,因为企业雇主们跑来找我,说我们养育的这新一代走上工作岗位的人,如果不给他们奖励,他们一天都过不下去。

So what can we do? Howcan we build that bridge to yet?

我们该怎么做呢?如何让孩子注重过程而不是结果呢?

Here are some things wecan do. First of all, we can praise wisely, not praising intelligence ortalent. That has failed. Don't do that anymore. But praising the process thatkids engage in: their effort, their strategies, their focus, theirperseverance, their improvement. This process praise creates kids who are hardyand resilient.

我们可以做这样几件事。首先,我们可以有技巧地去表扬:不去表扬天分或才智,这行不通。不要再这样做了。而是要对孩子积极投入的过程进行表扬:他们的努力与策略,他们的专注、坚持与进步。对过程的表扬,会塑造孩子的韧性。

There are other ways toreward yet. We recently teamed up with game scientists from the University ofWashington to create a new>还有其他的办法来奖励过程。最近,我们与来自华盛顿大学的游戏研究者合作,制作了一款奖励过程的数学游戏。在这个游戏中,学生们因他们的努力、策略与进步而受到奖励。通常的数学游戏中,玩家只有在解得正确答案后才能得到奖励,但这个游戏奖励过程。随着游戏的深入,孩子们更加努力,想出更多的策略,身心更加投入,当遇到尤为困难的问题时,他们也展现了更为持久的韧劲。

Just the words"yet" or "not yet," we're finding, give kids greaterconfidence, give them a path into the future that creates greater persistence.And we can actually change students' mindsets. In

我们发现,注重过程的思维模式,会赋予孩子们更多自信,指引他们不断向前,越发坚持不懈。事实上,我们能够改变学生的思维模式。在一项研究中,我们告诉学生们,每当他们迫使自己走出舒适区,学习新知识,迎接新挑战,大脑中的神经元会形成新的、更强的连接,他们会逐渐变得越来越聪明。

Look what happened: inthis study, students who were not taught this growth mindset continued to showdeclining grades over this difficult school transition, but those who weretaught this lesson showed a sharp rebound in their grades. We have shown thisnow, this kind of improvement, with thousands and thousands of kids, especiallystruggling students.

看看后面发生了什么吧:在这项研究中,没有接受成长型思维模式训练的学生,在这一困难的过渡阶段,成绩持续下滑,但那些受过该训练的学生,成绩强势反弹,卓有起色。如今,我们已证实这一结论,通过成千上万个孩子的实例,尤其是那些在学业上挣扎的孩子。

So let's talk aboutequality. In our country, there are groups of students who chronically underperform,for example, children in inner cities, or children>那我们就来谈谈教育平等吧。在我们国家,有些特定区域的孩子总是在学业上处于下游,比如,内城区的孩子,或印第安人居留地里的孩子。长期以来这里的孩子都没什么起色, 以致于很多人认为没的救了。但是当教育家们将孩子的思维转变为成长型思维模式时,教育平等实现了。

And here are just a few examples. In>举几个例子吧。纽约哈莱姆区的一所幼儿园的学生在一年的时间内,国家水平测试(NationalAchievement Test) 成绩飞跃到前百分之五。这些孩子中有很多在入学时甚至还不会握笔。一年之内,远远落后的南布朗克斯区的四年级学生,其标准数学测试成绩攀升到纽约州所有四年级学生的第一名。在一年到一年半的时间内, 某印第安人居留地的一所学校里的学生成绩从全区垫底到名列前茅,而这个区包括了西雅图市的富饶地段。印第安孩子战胜了「微软」孩子。

This happened becausethe meaning of effort and difficulty were transformed. Before, effort anddifficulty made them feel dumb, made them feel like giving up, but now, effortand difficulty, that's when their neurons are making new connections, strongerconnections. That's when they're getting smarter.

这得以实现的原因,是努力与困难的意义在孩子心目中发生了改变。在此之前,努力与困难让他们感觉自己很笨,让他们想放弃,但如今,正是努力与困难让他们大脑中的神经元得以形成新的连接,更强的连接。正是在这个过程中,他们变得越来越聪明。

I received a letterrecently from a 13-year-old boy. He said, "Dear Professor Dweck, Iappreciate that your writing is based>最近,我收到一个13岁男孩的来信。他说,「亲爱的德韦克教授,我欣赏你的著作,因为它们都基于可靠的科学试验,因此,我决定将你的方法付诸实践。我更用功地学习,更用心地处好与家人的关系,与同学的关系,而在这些方面我都有了长足的进步。现在我才意识到,过去浪费了太多生命。」

Let's not waste anymore lives, because>让我们不再浪费生命, 因为,既然我们知道 能力可以增长,那么,生活在一个能激发进步并让这一切变得可能的地方就是每个孩子的权利。


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yxh_1 发表于 2020-1-2 05:43:55 | 显示全部楼层
不错不错.,..我喜欢
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